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Watchmaking Glossary and Watchmaking Terms.

Find the meaning of watchmaking terms to understand the parts that make up a watch.

Analog. A relo is called "analog" when it has hands that move by marks from 1 to 12 to show you the time, which is the traditional dial.

Digital analog. This style of watch has an analog dial with hands and a separate digital display. The two displays usually work independently of each other.

Opening. a window located on a watch face that displays a function. It commonly displays the calendar date, weekdays, or a month.

ATM. Unit of measurement of atmospheric pressure (atmosphere). Watchmakers use these units to indicate water resistance. See the definition of water resistance.

Bezel. The bezel is a ring that attaches the a crystal of the watch to the case. It can be fixed or rotatable.

Rotating bezel.  The function of the rotating watch bezels, typical in pilot's watches, is to keep track of the elapsed time or take other measurements, such as the average speed or the distance traveled.  Rotating bevels are generally defined as bi-directional rotating bevels or unidirectional rotating bevels.

Perpetual calendar. The one prepared to change automatically even when the year is leap year. This is thanks to special gears that with a very slow movement and a great “memory” fit just in the right year. Externally, a perpetual calendar we will recognize at first glance by a special indication with four numbers, from 1 to 4, which tells us the time period between leap year and leap year.

Box. The frame that houses the clock mechanisms. The crown of a men's watch is usually 35 millimeters or more in diameter, the size of the women's watch case is 34 millimeters or less.

Gauge. The caliber indicates the configuration and size of the watch movement.

Crown. A device with a ribbed body by means of which the watch is wound up, the time is set or the calendar date is changed. It is usually located at 3. It is usually made of chrome-plated or plated brass and that of branded watches incorporates its logo as a characteristic distinctive. The crown is threaded to the seatpost and sometimes, especially in submersible watches, also threaded to the case.

Screw-on crown. This crown fits the watch case to create a stronger seal than the push and pull of the crown. These crowns help to create greater water resistance for the watch.

Chronograph. Time instrument equipped with a time counter that allows measuring and displaying time intervals regardless of the conservation and, eventually, the indication of the time. Watch with hour, minute and second hand, complete with a mechanism that drives a chronograph hand placed in the center of the dial. The buttons allow you to start it, stop it and return it to zero. Such a needle gives one turn per minute; another so-called counter needle, they total the number of turns, the minutes, usually up to 30.

Analog chronograph. It shows the time and has stopwatch functions using the hands of the dial. The central hand indicates the stopwatch function, and the seconds are displayed on a subdial. Analog quartz watches with chronograph function often display 1/10th second and 1/100th second on subdials.

Double chronograph. A dual chronograph has two independent chronometers.

Stopwatch. A chronometer is a high-precision watch, the movement of which has been quality tested by the Controle Officiel Suisse des (COSC), a Swiss laboratory. The movement tests of the COSC. Watches qualified as chronometers include a COSC certification number.

Crystal. Thin plate made of glass or a transparent synthetic product that protects the face of a watch. The main shapes are: round, beveled round, “chevé" round, concave round, shape crystal, beveled shape crystal, concave shape crystal, “optical” shape crystal, and ball shape crystal.

Sphere or Dial. Plate on which the hours, minutes, and seconds are marked, as well as other possible functionalities of the watch.

Moon phase. This is a function that displays the lunar phases of the month, usually in a subdial.

Dual time. This feature allows the user to track the time in two time zones at once. The display can have two clocks, one subdial placed on the main dial, or analog and digital displays on the same key.

World time. Usually located on the bezel or outer edge of the main line, a world time dial is a scale that indicates the time in various time zones. Each time zone lists a big city.

Dial or Dial. The face of the watch that contains the numbers, indexes or surface design is called the dial.

Day and night indicator. This indicator surrounds the edge of the bezel of a watch and shows the time zones of many cities or countries. The circle is shaded to specify the day and night hours.

Board. Gaskets are seals placed on the crown, buttons, case back and crystals to increase the water resistance ability of a watch. Gaskets should be checked for deterioration by a professional jeweler every few years.

Movement. In the art of watchmaking, the movement refers to the inner clock mechanism that drives the classic watch functions, in other words, it is the engine of the watch. Watches have quartz, mechanical or automatic movements.

Automatic movement. An automatic movement is a mechanical movement with an automatic loading design. An automatic watch takes advantage of the energy produced by the movement. This movement has a rotor that rotates when the watch is in motion, such as when the user moves his arm.

Quartz movement. The movement is called quartz due to the fact that the battery works in combination with a quartz crystal. The battery passes an electric current through the glass to keep it oscillating at more than 32,000 vibrations per second. This crystal vibrates by driving a motor that moves the hands of the clock at a constant speed to maintain the time accurately.

Mechanical movement. The most important characteristic of a mechanical movement is that it is manually wound to store potential energy.

Heart rate monitor. The heart rate monitor is the function of advanced sports watches that measures the user's pulse rate.

Water resistant (water resistant). This term is misleading when applied to watches. No watch is 100 percent water resistant, however, many watches have a high water resistance rating and can be labeled as well. See the definition of water resistance.

Water resistance (water resistance). The design of a waterproof watch helps prevent moisture from entering and prevents damage to the movement. Use rubber, nylon or Teflon gaskets on the back cover, crystals, crowns and push buttons to seal these crucial points. A watch that has a rating of 10 ATM is waterproof up to 100 meters, and one that has a rating of 20 ATM is waterproof up to 200 meters. These ratings are often found on diving watches.

Shock resistance. Shock resistance refers to the durability of the watch case and its ability to protect the movement. To be considered shock resistant, a watch must be able to survive being dropped on a wooden floor a height of 3 feet or withstand an impact of equal force.

Diving watch. A diving watch is suitable for snorkeling or diving. These diving watches pass the standards set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the regulations must have a water resistance rating of 20 ATM (200 meters/660 feet).

Depth sensor. This function is found on some diving watches and determines the depth based on the water pressure measurement.

Tourbillon. A tourbillon is a frame for the escapement section of a mechanical watch. Some watches have a window to view the tourbillon as an aesthetic element.

Tachymeter. A tachymeter is a scale used to measure the speed of travel over a specific distance. The scale used to perform this calculation is often found on the frame or line edge of a watch.

Rangefinder. A rangefinder determines the time it takes for a sound to travel between the watch and a specific object. This measurement is used to determine the distance between the two points. The telemetric scale is usually fixed on the bezel.

Tonneau. Tonneau, is a shape of a watch case that has convex sides and resembles the side view of a barrel.

A glossary of watchmaking, watchmaking terms and terms about watches that can be useful for you to better understand the parts that make up a wristwatch.

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